Monthly Archives: July 2014

Research profiles (Academia.edu / ResearchGate)

640px-Humanités_NumériquesArticle by Professor Peter Albion

Humanités Numériques, by Calvinius CC BY-SA 3.0

 

 

 

 

My brief for the USQ 23 Things project is to write a short (200 to 400 words – but who is counting, I’ll easily exceed that) post about ResearchGate and Academia.edu with focus on their applications in Higher Education (particularly teaching and learning). I’m interpreting my brief as dealing with online things that might profile and promote my research outputs.

I’ll begin with some general thoughts on the topic, comment on those specific sites, and then refer to other sites with what I consider to be related purposes. Finally, I’ll look at some more ‘out there’ alternatives and suggest some things to try.

Research & visibility

It might be true that in research, as in politics, there is no such thing as bad publicity. At least it seems that recognition for researchers, individually or institutionally, is tied to reputation which is often linked to relative visibility of publications.

USQ Publications Prizes go to authors who publish in journals with the highest rankings which are determined using citation rates. Success with grant applications is similarly tied to track record which is linked to previous success including publications. Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) uses metrics such as citation counts that depend upon research being found by others and their acknowledging that.

The things in my brief

Anything that makes research outputs more visible seems likely to benefit the researcher and institution. Sites like ResearchGate and Academia.edu have been developed to play to that need to be seen but they are not the only players. However, they are my assigned subject so I’ll begin there.

ResearchGate

I forget when and how I heard about ResearchGate but I joined it a good while ago, probably not long after it launched in 2008. I won’t attempt to describe it or its history. You can check the Wikipedia article for that.

Although it is described as “Facebook for scientists and researchers” and might function that way once you sign up, it is not very useful for promoting research to non-members. Even if you manage to find the minuscule link to a list of profiles hidden at the foot of the page you cannot see them without signing up (which you can do using Facebook). Visibility on ResearchGate seems to be restricted to the in crowd.

Once signed up you are able to use a selection of automated searches to create a profile on ResearchGate that will list your publications. Thereafter ResearchGate will, from time to time, encourage you to upload full text copies regardless of whether you have the necessary rights. I’ve declined to do that because I don’t have the relevant rights for all publications and I don’t have time to do it. I’d be happy to include links to the copies in USQ ePrints but that is not an option at present. Some of my publications are there because co-authors may be less concerned about copyright and/or blessed with more time than I have to upload copies.

From time to time I do get messages from ResearchGate users requesting copies of papers. Typically I respond with a link to the paper in USQ ePrints. That’s easier for me, exposes more of my work in ePrints, and promotes USQ.

ResearchGate also has some arcane measures of reputation, the RG Score “based on how other researchers interact with your content” and impact points derived by some mechanism that remains mysterious. It’s not clear to me how they work and some comparisons seem out of kilter with my personal impressions.

My biggest beef with ResearchGate is its constant carping about uploading full text. Just let me link to USQ ePrints.

Academia.edu

Like ResearchGate, Academia.edu launched in 2008. You can read its history in the Wikipedia article. I probably signed up to Academia.edu at about the same time as I joined ResearchGate.

I tend not to bother with it much, though it regularly sends email messages to inform me that somebody searched for me on Google and found my page on Academia.edu. In that respect at least it is doing its job and helping to make my work visible. My record there has a long list of papers that I must have provided at some point but I forget when or how. I expect it had some method for automating ingestion.

As with ResearchGate, Academia.edu would like me to upload full text but I’m not prepared to risk copyright infringement or donate the necessary time. Anything I’ve published can be found via USQ ePrints. At least my profile on Academia.edu, unlike that on ResearchGate, is accessible without signing up to the service. That makes it potentially more useful for promoting my research if only I could be bothered to keep it up to date. Like ResearchGate, Academia.edu has made efforts to court institutional support by grouping researchers according to institutional affiliation and sections within that.

Value for (no) money?

Am I skeptical about ResearchGate and Academia.edu? Yes. Is it worth signing up? Probably.

To the extent that either site makes my work more visible that’s a potential benefit and requires little effort on my part beyond signing up (for free) and building an initial list of publications, possibly using a file exported from EndNote or some other easy process.

Other research profiles

Beyond those two sites, I have others where my research can be found by those who may be interested.

Sites based on Google Scholar

Probably the simplest to establish is a Google Scholar profile. Like the others that’s existed for a while and I’ve forgotten just how I created it but there was little or no effort required.

Another site that uses Google Scholar to source its data is Scholarometer, which provides an extension for the Firefox and Chrome browsers to search Google Scholar and return a list of publications by author with citation indices. Anybody can search Scholarometer for citations of any author. Those data can be checked and are stored so that any visitor can retrieve my citation statistics and/or explore rankings of, and links among, researchers in a field.

USQ opportunities

USQ offers no fewer than three opportunities to showcase my research.

The staff directory entry provides a space to list three most recent research outcomes. Unfortunately that requires me to manually enter the details and will not accept HTML so I cannot link to a more easily maintained list.

USQ ePrints would seem to be the obvious solution since my publications are already listed there and a recent update has unified the lists associated with name variations. If only I could link to there from the directory entry :-(

The USQ eportfolio based on Mahara supports a direct feed (via RSS) from ePrints that can be displayed in a profile page but seems to behave strangely with regard to what it selects for display.

There’s more…

Mendeley was developed as a free alternative to reference managers like EndNote and can exchange records with such software. It works using a downloadable application and on the website where it is possible to build a personal profile and establish groups. In 2013 Mendeley joined Elsevier but the website is still functional and can be useful.

Researcher identities

One of the challenges with any of these systems, including USQ ePrints, has been disambiguating names. Common names present potential for confusion among researchers with the same or similar names. Publications vary in their policies about using names and/or one or more initials so that my name may appear variously as Peter Albion, Peter R Albion, P Albion or P R Albion. Some researchers change their names. The obvious solution is a unique identifier for a researcher but who should issue and/or manage such IDs?

Google (Scholar) has created a code for each researcher who has established (or claimed) their profile. Scholarometer recognises the Google Scholar ID and supports searches using it but also has its own internal identifier.

Thomson Reuters has established ResearcherID which supports creation of a researcher profile that is publicly visible and can be searched by name.

ORCID describes itself as an “open, non-profit, community-driven effort to create and maintain a registry of unique research identifiers and a transparent method of lining research activities and outputs to these identifiers.” ORCID also supports a public profile and recognises IDs from at least ResearcherID and Scopus if you chose to link those.

What’s a researcher to do?

With all these options for profiling research which should we be using? As I suggested at the top, there is probably no such thing as bad publicity for research so use as many of those that seem to work for you as you can bear to deal with. Some are easier than others. Some, like USQ ePrints, are institutional requirements and should go to top of the list.

Doing your own thing

Of course there are more alternatives. There is a growing meme that favours reclaiming and managing our own online identities.

Google, Facebook and other commercial entities that offer ‘free’ services do so in order to turn a profit from our data. It’s true that if you are not paying for some online service it’s because you are the product being sold.

University of Mary Washington has been promoting a project, A Domain of One’s Own, to encourage students and staff to create their own web presence and EDUCAUSE has recently published a piece about Reclaiming Innovation.

It’s in that spirit that, when USQ closed out access to web space for staff personal pages a couple of years ago, I registered a domain and established my own presence at peter.albion.id.au. That site is still under-developed but I hope to find time to refresh it soon. I’ve done some work to build my publications list by pulling data from ePrints but that needs more work to automate it fully.

Things for you to try

This has run far beyond 200 to 400 words and I’ve yet to suggest things you might do to explore this area. Here are some suggestions you might try, depending on your interests.

  • Try searching for researchers you know about in one or more of the services. Do they have profiles and, if so, how well do they match what you know?
  • If you search for the same researcher(s) using a simple Google search which of the profiles show up and in what order?
  • Create a personal profile on one or more of the sites discussed above. How easy is it?
  • Explore the Scholarometer Explore facility. What can you find out about relative rankings of researchers in fields of interest or about the networks to which they are linked?
  • Register your own domain and claim your own identity on the web.

LinkedIn

Getting Connected! by Ron Pauley, Liaison Librarian

linkedin

Image LinkedIn by Esther Vargas Licensed (CC BY-SA 2.0)

 

 

 

 

What is LinkedIn?

This short 2 minute video sums it all up!

 

LinkedIn – Some Background

Conceived in 2002 as a way to help professionals find and keep in touch with each other, LinkedIn created a space to display resumes online, and promote one’s skills – a platform ideal for job seekers and head hunters alike. In this respect, LinkedIn has indeed become the recruitment tool of choice; “94% of recruiters who use social media use LinkedIn.” John Zappe LinkedIn Dominates Social Media Sourcing and Recruiting http://www.ere.net/2013/09/05/linkedin-dominates-social-media-sourcing-and-recruiting/

Had LinkedIn remained simply an online job matching service, it is questionable that we would be reviewing it as part of the USQ 23Things project.

Jeff Weiner’s appointment as CEO in 2009 however, saw the transformation of LinkedIn from a job hunting site, into a professional “development” site, fully utilising its social media platform to inform, influence, and educate, demonstrably bringing new life, and increasing membership of 32 million in 2009 (http://ourstory.linkedin.com/ ) to over 300 million worldwide (6 million in Australia) by mid-2014 (http://press.linkedin.com/about).

 

Academic Applications

It is the specific benefits and features created for academics, students, and educational institutions which attract our attention today. Academic advantages include improved facilitation to: connect to fellow researchers, find and reach people you need to build a broader network of professionals, establish collaborative relationships and projects, acquire and share expertise.

 

It could be said we are just beginning to glimpse the potential value of LinkedIn to the academic community. For example;

  • “As an academic whose primary focus is the education of undergraduates (as opposed to living a publish-or-perish life), I use LinkedIn as a tool for keeping track of graduates, making contact with professionals whose expertise could enrich our educational programs (e.g., through guest lectures in courses or seminar series), and helping current and former students network professionally.” Jason Miller Quora Blog:Do academics find value in using Linkedin? Why or why not?http://www.quora.com/Do-academics-find-value-in-using-Linkedin-Why-or-why-not
  • The Influencer’s program initially launched in 2012, is expanding its publishing platform in 2014 to allow you to publish original content on LinkedIn’s platform, and thus push your content out to your network immediately, very helpful if you wish to attract attention and expand your reach. John Bonini How LinkedIn Got Cool & Became Your Most Powerful Distribution Channel http://www.impactbnd.com/blog/linkedin-distribution-channel

 

Student Benefits

Students can also benefit from engagement with LinkedIn to network with other students, promote their skills and specialisations prior to graduation, find a career mentor, and connect with major employers globally.

 

Employer Benefits

LinkedIn has become a tool of powerful influence, not to be overlooked by employers.

  • “When someone looks at a profile of one of your employees, it not only speaks to their personal brand, but to your company brand as well. If you help your staff build stellar, compelling profiles and show them how to engage and stay connected to their brand community, you’re sending a message about your company brand to everyone who visits their pages or interacts with them. This is valuable to clients, potential customers, business partners and existing and future employees. It supports competitive advantage. Through the collective profiles of your employees, people can see the talent and specific skills of your people.” William Arruda Why Every Employee At Your Company Should Use LinkedIn http://www.forbes.com/sites/williamarruda/2014/01/07/why-every-employee-at-your-company-should-use-linkedin/

 

ACTIVITIES

The true value of LinkedIn is in the engagement, so let’s get connected.

Join or Sign In www.linkedin.com

 

Create a basic profile to get started. Once you are a member of Linkedin you will find yourself prompted to develop your profile; you can take your time with this, but for now at least, complete your name (and upload a profile photograph – remember, this is a professional site), and your current job description at USQ. You will notice the USQ Logo appear.

 

Connections. There are differing opinions on the benefits of connecting with only known colleagues or making new connections to expand your knowledge and collaboration base. For now, search for a colleague, or a past associate you wish to re-establish contact with, and invite them to connect with you.

  • “Personalize each connection request with a reminder of how the person knows you or explain why they should connect with you, and you’ll find they’re far more likely to accept.”   Melanie Dodaro 6 Ways to Grow Your LinkedIn Connections http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/successful-linkedin-networking/
  • “… keys to networking for academics on LinkedIn: how to find and sustain a professional relationship with colleagues and experts in your field, get others to Endorse and Recommend you in the right ways, and connect LinkedIn to the rest of your professional life.” Stacy Konkiel How to become an academic networking pro on LinkedIn http://blog.impactstory.org/linkedin-networking/

 

Groups. LinkedIn provides the platform and features to start your own group, or join up to 50 of the existing groups. You are not limited to joining groups in your own profession; you may wish to join in conversations beyond your usual network.

Search for groups in a field of interest to you, choose at least one and join to explore the features of group function as well as participate in conversation. You can withdraw from a group at any time. Stuck for ideas – you might like to consider: Innovative Learning & Education Innovators, Higher Education Teaching & Learning, TechinEDU, eLearning Global Network, Australian Higher Education, Future of Learning, or perhaps the newly formed local group Toowoomba Queensland Community.

 

Influencers and the Pulse. LinkedIn engages with a wide range of industry Influencers. Feeds of their short articles will automatically come to you through the Pulse (Similar to the Facebook News-feed).

 

A Final Word

LinkedIn CEO, Jeff Weiner shares his vision for the future of LinkedIn, and how LinkedIn job market analytics may one day directly inform educational institutions on program and course development.

Wayne Breitbarth Power Formula Blog: Excerpts of the Weiner interview http://www.powerformula.net/4906/who-better-to-give-you-linkedin-tips-than-linkedin-ceo-jeff-weiner/

Copyright and Licensing

copyright

 

Horia Varlan, Large copyright sign made of jigsaw puzzle pieces , used under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0

 

 

Tackling the Copyright Puzzle, by Tahnee Pearse

Copyright – What is it?

  • In Australia, copyright is governed by the Copyright Act 1968 and applies automatically on the creation of a work.
  • It protects the rights of the creator.

It gives the owners exclusive rights to :

  • Reproduce the work
  • Publish the work
  • Perform the work in public
  • Communicate the work to the public
  • Make, reproduce, publish, perform or communicate an adaptation of the work.

The Copyright Act also includes a section on the moral rights of the creator of a work which seeks to ensure the creator is attributed and the integrity of their work is maintained.

The Digital Challenge

“The internet has profoundly changed the way we access, share and create content. It enables widespread access to knowledge, new opportunities for community participation and fosters digital innovation.” (Australian Digital Alliance 2013, Righting the Copyright imbalance, used under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0).

“The digital age has presented many and diverse challenges for copyright law. The rapid uptake of digital, networked technologies led to widespread online distribution of content, as well as the emergence of new practices and technologies that enabled digital content to be shared, reused and remixed on an unprecedented scale.

But while technology provided the capacity for sharing and reuse of content to occur on a vast scale, legal restrictions on the use of copyright material hampered its negotiability in the digital environment”. (Fitzgerald & Hooper 2013, ‘Explainer – Creative Commons’, The Conversation, used under a Creative Commons Attribution – No Derivatives 4.0).

Getting the right blend …

To assist with understanding this digital challenge, at USQ we have started describing resource use for learning and teaching in terms of a blend because we recognise that the resources that are used are not sourced from one location. For example, resources may be found on the Internet, in hard copy in the Library or accessed via a subscription database.

Thus when creating learning and teaching materials we blend different resources that are covered by different copyrights or licenses. This approach enables educators to enhance the teaching and learning experience by making informed decisions regarding the use of resources within moral rights and copyrights.

Making an informed decision

There are three key questions we recommend you ask when deciding whether to use a resource in online teaching and learning materials –

  1. What is it?
  2. What was the original format?
  3. How do I wish to use the resource?

The Copyright Matrix

At USQ we have developed a Copyright Matrix, based on these questions, to assist you in making decisions about when or when not to use a resource in a certain way.

The Matrix takes into account the impact of the following copyright or licensing allowances –
Copyright Act 1968
• Subscription Licenses (For a listing see the USQ eResources guide)
• Other Licenses eg. APRA/AMCOS licenses
• Open Access Licenses

Open Access Licenses

Open Access Licenses are applied by copyright owners of a work in addition to the copyright that already exists in the work (Fitzgerald & Fitzgerald 2004).

UNESCO has defined Open Educational Resources (OERs) as “teaching, learning or research materials that are in the public domain or released with an intellectual property license that allows for free use, adaptation, and distribution” (UNESCO 2012).

There are a number of licenses, however the most widespread used for licensing OERs is Creative Commons (Bissell 2009, p. 103). In this environment, users and creators of OERs require a working knowledge of Creative Commons licensing.

There are six main licenses, made up of a mix of four elements.

The four elements are –

Attribution (BY) BY – This applies to every Creative Commons work. Whenever a work is copied or redistributed under a Creative Commons license, the original creator (and any other nominated parties) must be credited and the source linked to.

NCNon-Commericial (NC) – Lets others copy, distribute, display and perform the work for non-commercial purposes only.

 

NDNo Derivatives (ND) – Lets others distribute, display and perform only verbatim copies of the work. They may not adapt or change the work in any way

 

SA Share Alike (SA) – Allows others to remix, adapt and build on the work, but only if they distribute the derivative works under the same the licence terms that govern the original work.

 

The six main licences are :

Attribution (CC BY) cc by

This licence allows users to distribute, remix and build upon a work, and create Derivative Works – even for commercial use – provided they credit the original creator/s (and any other nominated parties). This is the most accommodating of the licences in terms of what others can do with the work.

cc by saAttribution – Share Alike (CC BY-SA)

This license allows users to distribute, remix and build upon the work, and create Derivative Works – even for commercial purposes – as long as they credit the original creator/s (and any other nominated parties) and license any new creations based on the work under the same terms. All new Derivative Works will carry the same license, so will also allow commercial use.

cc by ndAttribution – No Derivatives (CC BY-ND)

This license allows others to distribute the work, even for commercial purposes, as long as the work is unchanged, and the original creator/s (and any other nominated parties) are credited.

cc ncAttribution – Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others distribute, remix and build upon the work, but only if it is for non-commercial purposes and they credit the original creator/s (and any other nominated parties). They don’t have to license their Derivative Works on the same terms.

cc by nc saAttribution – Non-Commercial – Share Alike (CC BY-NC-SA)

This license lets others distribute, remix and build upon the work, but only if it is for non-commercial purposes, they credit the original creator/s (and any other nominated parties) and they license their derivative works under the same terms.

cc by nc ndAttribution – Non-Commercial – No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND)

This license is the most restrictive of the six main licenses, allowing redistribution of the work in its current form only. This license is often called the ‘free advertising’ license because it allows others to download and share the work as long as they credit the original creator/s (and any other nominated parties), they don’t change the material in any way and they don’t use it commercially.

(Creative Commons Australia, 2014, About the Licenses, used under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0)

For more information about Creative Commons Licenses, see this article by Anne Fitzgerald and Neale Hooper – Explainer: Creative Commons, The Conversation and the Creative Commons Australia factsheet entitled, About the Licences.

Finding resources with Open Access Licenses

For a list of websites from which to launch a search for open access licensed items access this site.
A good place to start is the Creative Commons Search page.

Attribution

As you can see in all of the above Creative Commons licenses, it is essential you attribute the resource that is being used.

The key elements to include in an attribution are – the creator, title of the work, the website address where the work is hosted, the type of license it is available under and the website address of the license. See the Copyright puzzle image at the start of this post for a good example.
To learn how to do this, access the Creative Commons Australia Attribution Fact Sheet or view the video by Adrian Stagg, eLearning Designer at USQ entitled, How do I Attribute Creative Commons Licensed Material?

Need further help?

This blog post focusses on copyright and learning and teaching. If you require further information regarding Copyright and Research, please access this site or contact your Copyright Information Officer.

Now it’s time for you to have a go!

1. Search for an image using the Creative Commons Search.
2. Post and Attribute the image correctly on your Blog/Facebook/Twitter account.

References:

Australian Digital Alliance 2013, Righting the Copyright imbalance, Australian Digital Alliance, Canberra, viewed 7 July 2014, http://digital.org.au/ .

Bissell, A.N. 2009, ‘Permission granted: open licensing for educational resources’, Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 97-106.

Creative Commons Australia, 2014, About the Licences, Creative Commons, Brisbane, viewed 7 July 2014, http://creativecommons.org.au/learn/licences/.

Fitzgerald, A. & Fitzgerald, B. 2004, Intellectual Property in Principle, Thomson Lawbook Co., Pyrmont, New South Wales.

Fitzgerald, A. & Hooper, N. 2013, ‘Explainer – Creative Commons’, The Conversation, 19 December, viewed 7 July 2014, http://theconversation.com/explainer-creative-commons-21341.

UNESCO 2012, Communication and Information – Open Educational Resources, UNESCO, Paris, viewed 7 July 2014, http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/access-to-knowledge/open-educational-resources/.

 

Video

Video – It is worth a thousand words, by Bec McSwiney

Did you know that Youtube is the second largest search engine in the world [1]? Yes you read that correctly…search engine. This means that people are preferring to “Youtube it” than to “Google it”. The reasons for this include our visual learners can listen and view what to do. You can pause and even view video on your phone.

The power of video has taken the world by storm and as more video is created…more is expected. I like the common social media term of “feeding the hungry beast”, as it supports the data of video consumption [2] and ease of access to video. With social media sites like Instagram you can produce 15 seconds of video and Vine with 6 seconds from your smart phone.

Video allows people/organisations to convey more emotion, passion and to be honest, it is more visually appealing. Why not try to create a feeling in a classroom through a discussion when you can execute this with a 45 second video? Forrester Research has shown that 1 minute of video is equivalent to 1000 words [3,4].

Let me prove my point. I could tell you a story about the fact there is this amazing technological device called the iPhone that will impact upon your life etc etc…or I could show you this video
Which did you prefer? Some of you will prefer my story but the majority of you would have found the video much more engaging.

 

How to get involved:

This data and societal trends are all well and good to have general knowledge about, but how do you utilise this information, contribute to the video boom and sift through the 100 hours of video that is posted to Youtube every minute [5]?
You don’t need a fancy television studio, tricky software or even a webcam. Most smart phones these days have a video inbuilt to your camera, allowing you to edit this on the comfort of your office or even couch at home. There are many free video software available online.

It is important to look at your search terms in providing a number of keywords, looking at the related videos on the right hand column and finding sources of quality.
Anyone with an email can sign up to create a video account. If you have a Gmail account, you are already provided with a Youtube account. The user interface will step you through. When feeling stuck…Youtube it.

 

Bec’s Tips:

  • Quality over quantity. With so much video, you want to make sure that the information that you are providing is quality. If you have a lot to say, why not break each key point into a separate video?
  • Keep your message simple and to the point. No one has time for rambling. If you don’t get their attention early users will switch off and continue searching.
  • Try practicing keeping to a minute timeframe. Place a timer
  • Practice makes perfect. Record yourself and play it back. You will pick up on ummmms and mannerisms that you might not be aware of.
  • You don’t need to introduce yourself in your video. There are captions underneath a video when you upload it and you can provide relevant links there.
  • Review your analytics. You will be able to see a retention rate, providing feedback of how long people are watching your video, where your viewers are coming form and so much more.
  • Subscribe to users of video that you find helpful. It will alert you of new content that you might be interested in. Looking for where to start, why not try TEDx or USQ?

 

Embedding video:

For those of you who are keen to now starting to embed video in presentations, I could explain how to do this with a diagram but why not keep in the spirit of video and watch the how to guides below:

 

Let’s share!

I would love for you to share the Youtube (or Vimeo) URL of a video that you have recently found and the reasons for why you like it.
This link might provide you with some inspiration as it shares the top ten videos of 2013 and also some pretty impressive statistics.

To kick start the conversation here is one of my favourite videos:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5KlS45U7-O4. Having played a lot of sport as a child, I felt instantly connected with the video and despite that there was very little audio the visual power continues to leave me with goosebumps. It was so popular that in fact they released a winter Olympic version: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=57e4t-fhXDs

 

Sources:

1 http://socialmediatoday.com/socialbarrel/1650226/second-largest-search-engine-infographic
2 http://smk.cmail1.com/t/ViewEmail/r/D2B9B39CBCFE70BB/3A51136301AC3483E89F0E32AAFB68BF
3 http://www.forrester.com/James-L.-McQuivey,-Ph.D,
4 http://www.marketwired.com/press-release/a-minute-of-video-is-worth-18-million-words-according-to-forrester-research-1900666.htm
5 http://www.mushroomnetworks.com/infographics/youtube—the-2nd-largest-search-engine-infographic